Liaqat Jalal, Atta-ur-Rehman Khan, Muhammad Shaukat Farooq and Muhammad Tahir Nouman
Background: The outcome for this neurosurgical problem is still far from set target in many developing countries like Pakistan. Major proportion of cases presenting with EDH in hospital still has poor outcome. This poor outcome of EDH is attributed to many factors including weak health systems of most developing countries. Objective of study was to analyze factors influencing outcome among patients of head injury with an extradural hematoma before surgery admitted in neurosurgery department of Dera Ghazi Khan Medical College, Dera Ghazi Khan.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in neurosurgery department of Dera Ghazi Khan Medical College from January 2019 to December 2019 after ethical approval. All the patients with extradural hematoma of either gender admitted in the department during the study duration in which surgery was performed to evacuate extradural hematoma were included in the study. Data was collected by using preformed, pretested questionnaire. A vital signs and Glasgow coma scale record was maintained at thirty minutes interval. Computerized tomography was done in every patient. The EDH volume was calculated by using Peterson and Epperson equation a x b x c x 0.5. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Chi square test was applied to observe any statistically significant difference between various strata if existed and p value <0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: Total 237 patients with Extradural Hematoma (EDH) were admitted in neurosurgery department during the study period were included in study. More than half 136 (57.4%) patients were more or equal to the age of 18 years. Majority of the patients 218 (91.9%) in the study were male. Major cause of extradural hematoma among patients in this study was road traffic accident 154 (64.9%). The outcome of EDH was found to be significantly (p <0.001) associated with age of patients. More than ninety percent of the patients who were directly admitted to tertiary care hospital has good outcome as compared to 109 (60.2%) patients which were referred and difference in outcome was statistically significant (p<0.001). The volume of EDH is not significantly associated with the outcome (p=0.090). The GSC score of the patients at the time of admission is significantly associated with the outcome (p<0.001). Study findings showed that GCS score of the patients at the time of surgery was also found to be significantly associated with outcome of EDH (p<0.001).
Conclusion: There is a strong association of outcome in extradural hematoma with age, gender and GCS of the patient. In higher GCS the outcome was excellent but in low GCS the outcome was poor.