Jazib Andleeb, Faiza Mehboob, Sana Javaid, Mudassar Ali, Muhammad Imran Khan and Qurat-ul-Ain
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with marked increase in insulin resistance. The objective of study is to determine the relation of gestational diabetes with serum leptin and serum insulin levels during pregnancy and postpartum period.
Methods: This case control study conducted on total ninety samples that include cases and controls taken after 24 weeks of gestation. The case sample included 40 pregnant women with GDM and 10 women with GDM at postpartum stage. The control sample included 30 normal pregnant women with no GDM and 10 normal women at postpartum. Fasting serum leptin and fasting serum insulin were measured by ELISA. HOMA index was calculated by fasting serum insulin and fasting blood glucose.
Results: Serum leptin (30.89 ± 1.35), serum insulin (27.67 ± 1.32) and HOMA index (8.33 ± 0.53) significantly high in gestational diabetic women than normal pregnant (p<0.05) during pregnancy. However, after delivery of fetus, serum leptin, serum insulin and HOMA index in gestational diabetics significantly decreased compared to during gestation period. Hence a positive correlation of GDM was determined against serum leptin and HOMA index.
Conclusion: Serum leptin level is raised in GDM which has a positive correlation with insulin resistance. This study finds that the serum leptin levels may use as a marker to early screen and diagnose Gestational diabetes.